March 09, 2005

英式巴洛克 Castle Howard

castle-howard-14.jpg
The statue at the path to Temple of the Four Winds

castle-howard-08.jpg
The House of Castle Howard

................巴洛克樣式可以從裡到外,用情感與華麗「淹沒」你,讓你所見之處,充滿驚奇與讚嘆,一副「膩死人不償命」的自信樣.................

castle-howard-25.jpg
The statue in front of Temple of the Four Winds

「巴洛克」式建築,這種17世紀初源自於羅馬的華麗奔放樣式(如羅馬著名的聖彼得大教堂與橢圓形廣場),起初僅見於義大利、西班牙、奧地利、匈牙利與天主教德國,直到18世紀初才在法國與一海之隔的英國興盛起來。Barque一詞之所以被後來的藝術史學家所選用,也就是因為這個字為「畸形」的意思,尤其指奇形怪狀的珍珠。其形成的原因多半是源自於,對於文藝復興樣式建築的機械化與限制重重感到厭倦,除了設計、文化與美學上的思考層面之外,另一個原因應該可歸咎於建築工程技術層面的大幅進步;因為歐洲在經過一段時間的建築嘗試之後,對於建築營造技術,如結構學方面,已經達到了可充分掌握的階段,以往結構系統的限制逐漸消失,讓當時的設計師有更多的設計潛力得以發揮,隨心所欲創出一番新格局。

而巴洛克時期對於建築音響學的注重,也讓巴洛克建築頗為興盛的國家,除了在華麗風格的繪畫、雕塑與室內設計之外,有著舉世著稱的音樂成就;許多著名的音樂家,如貝多芬、莫札特、巴哈…等,皆出現在這個時期與這些國家。同時,在海峽對岸的英國因為「巴洛克」式建築的數量有限,也讓它在當時與後世的音樂成就遠遠不及它在文學上的成就。

castle-howard-04.jpg
Temple of the Four Winds, Castle Howard

有人說「巴洛克式建築」不同於「文藝復興式建築」之處在於,巴洛克式建築所表現出來的建築效果非常非常「戲劇化」;當時的建築師在平面上揚棄了傳統的圓形與正方形,而改採橢圓形或波浪不規則狀的平面配置,在立面的表現上也揚棄了中規中矩的對稱與均衡,對美學與道德不帶任何偏見,因而衍生出許許多多不按牌理出牌,多樣性十足的建築佳作。再說得更簡單一點,巴洛克樣式可以從裡到外,用情感與華麗「淹沒」你,讓你所見之處,充滿驚奇與讚嘆,一副「膩死人不償命」的自信樣。

castle-howard-11.jpg
New River Bridge, Castle Howard

言歸正傳,說到這次參訪的Castle Howard,它被認為是英格蘭巴洛克建築的少數代表作之一;可是,我倒認為它與歐陸那些華麗的巴洛克建築一比,其雍容華貴的程度似乎遠遠不及,其樸素的程度倒是比較接近英國豪宅所熱愛的「帕拉底歐」樣式,如著名的Chatsworth House。可能是英國人陰鬱內斂的個性使然,也可能是宗教信仰與天主教歐陸截然不同所造成,讓它除了建築物本身的效果收斂許多之外,其較為有機柔軟的庭園設計,也與德、法的機械幾何庭園造景截然不同。我個人比較偏愛英式的庭園設計風格,記得BBC的庭園設計節目有說過,庭園設計的最高段,就是讓它看起來越自然越好,最極致的表現就是把一座庭園設計得像「荒野」一般,讓你完全不知道這片「荒野」其實是經過精心調配設計的。I can’t agree any more, and how about you?

castle-howard-18.jpg
The House of Castle Howard

Castle Howard的主要設計者有兩位,John Vanbrugh與Nicholas Hawkmoor,皆出於偉大的建築家與科學家列恩(Sir Christopher Wren)門下;列恩是誰呢?就是那位在1666年倫敦大火之後,設計興建了盤據倫敦天際線的聖保羅大教堂(St. Paul Cathedral),與其它51座教堂的那位列恩。整個Castle Howard的概念與設計爭取都是源自於John Vanbrugh這個頗具爭議性的人物,他原本是位想像力豐富且有點油嘴滑舌的劇作家,整個建築的技術層面幾乎都是由Nicholas Hawkmoor所完成;但是這樣評論John Vanbrugh好像有一點不公平,如果不是他劇作家無窮豐富的想像力與遊說能力,Nicholas Hawkmoor又如何拿夠拿到這個案子,並施展他在建築方面的長才呢?他們倆位後來又在牛津郡(Oxfordshire)蓋了一棟同樣是英式巴洛克代表作的Blenheim Palace,也就是前英國首相邱吉爾家族的世代故居。

這個建築例子,又讓我想到了之前在德國所參觀過的新天鵝堡,這座如夢鄉似幻的城堡,也是起源於名音樂劇作家華格納的理想堅持,他那非建築專業背景,完全是以舞台布幕設計為出發點的設計思考,也讓新天鵝堡為近代建築史增添了一股浪漫傳奇的色彩。雖然最後路德維希二世Ludwig被他搞到銀行破產,還被離奇的淹死在幕尼黑湖,下場淒慘,這又是題外話。

如果各位對整個Castle Howard 300年來複雜的興建史與家族史有興趣,敬請期待友台「五光動物園」德朵夫人的精采論述吧!

看照片先!!!!!

castle-howard-15.jpg
The background is The House of Castle Howard

castle-howard-19.jpg
The background is The Mausoleum of Castle Howard

All pictures were taken by Canon EF70-210 f3.5-4.5 USM lens from David

由 arp03th 發表於 March 9, 2005 01:12 AM | 引用
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20170401caiyan

caiyan 發表於 April 1, 2017 01:32 PM

Cessy,
其實巴洛克傳到英國都已經變了樣
跟歐陸差別不小
建築環境與宗教不同都是其中因素
就建築來說
已經參雜了許多帕拉底歐的成分在內了
庭院景觀設計就更不用說了
幾何造型都已經不見
取而代之的是有機自然的隨意曲線
非常英式田園風格

Lisa,
巴洛克盛行時
美國應該還未建國
跟古老的歐洲比起來
美國會顯得年輕許多
甚至有人說它是個沒有文化內涵累積的國家
一切都需要時間吧

老P 發表於 June 1, 2006 07:27 PM

有英式巴洛克建築
不知道有沒有美式的?

Lisa 發表於 May 30, 2006 01:49 PM

我觉得是指这个landscape是巴洛克风格的,而不仅仅是建筑

cessy 發表於 May 10, 2005 05:43 PM

it is interesting that I learned this castle through my prof's slides in Landscape Architecture History....and you visit here and talk about Architecture History....this is one of the beginning of idoligy of English Garden...
I wan't wait to see 德朵夫人's story la!!!

ALex 發表於 March 9, 2005 02:49 PM

Kaya
"建築"這個領域其實是非常生活化的
也非常大眾化且有趣的一門學問
本來就不用把他搞得很學術化,很高不可攀
我企圖嘗試以最口語化,最親切的語言
將隱藏在建築背後的故事說給大家聽
希望大家還可以接受
其實這種方式用在攝影教學也是非常適合的
謝謝你喜歡我這種讀起來很不專業的寫作風格
我會繼續朝這方面發展的

其實你那一張的構圖與曝光也是很不錯的
不會比我的差 真的
而且那對男女的姿勢幾乎是一模一樣
我剛看到還以為我貼錯網站了呢
你的Pro-1果真是神兵利器 效果非常不錯
因為對你來說是新機器
操作介面需要適應期
等完全熟悉之後 又是一番不同層次了

大師兄
當然有可能啊
我就是想要有較高反差的對比才減少曝光量的
這樣比較有戲劇性的效果
如果照其正確曝光值
應該可以有比較平均的光量
但是照片效果會比較平庸一點
了不了?

P 發表於 March 9, 2005 01:45 PM

讚!!(可惜沒有大拇指的圖!!)
我想問一下
第一張跟第三張有沒可能天空亮一點
而雕像還是保持一樣亮勒??

Taipei kid 發表於 March 9, 2005 11:21 AM

哇~~最喜歡這種簡單精要的建築史解說,要是早遇到這樣的老師,我建築史可能會學的好一點……(藉口吧!?)

不過,師父…我居然跟你拍到幾乎同一個時間、同一個取景的畫面…但不得不承認,你人放的位置,真的是比我的好,下次我會再多注意一點,之前到是來不及想到這麼多…

kaya 發表於 March 9, 2005 10:25 AM
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